On Our Tables & In Our Bellies [Historic]

Good Evening MycoPals!

 

So… You’ve got the mushroom virus. It has consumed you and your thoughts. Great! It’s time to spread the virus to others. Sometimes its difficult for us to effectively translate why mushrooms are so great. There are a huge number of reasons why, but here, we are going to focus on their nutritional value. Now that you’re a fungi, you’ll have to start forming those relationships with others and what better than to start at the roots, their health! Hopefully, you’re giving more than you take… right? Of course! We’ll help you with that.

 

After reading, you can expect to be informed on the many different nutritional benefits that mushrooms have to offer us. You’ll be able to discuss these benefits with others to help them better understand why fungi can and should be an important piece of their diet. For vegans, they are especially useful. As a follow up to your discussion and for a more in depth reference, you can direct them here through a link before or after the fact.

 

What is a Nutraceutical?

You might not have heard of this one before. I know that I hadn’t until I came across it in my reads, but it is useful and rather fitting. A nutraceutical is described as a functional food that is consumed as a part of the normal diet. They are said to be natural foods that are of value for maintaining good health. (1)

 

Mushrooms easily fit the bill. Some of the most commonly cultivated mushrooms (The Button Mushroom [Agaricus bisporus], Enokitake [Flammulina velutipes], Shiitake [Lentinula edodes], Oyster [Pleurotus ostreatus], The Straw Mushroom [Volvariella volvacea]) contain a wide variety of vitamins and minerals required for maintaining a healthy and balanced system. They also contain all of the essential amino acids. (1) Not sure what these are? Know of these but not specifically what they do? We are going to become more familiar with all of these vitamins and minerals below.

 

The former offer up a healthy composition of fatty acids with 72% of those being unsaturated fats, shown in analysis. (1) Unsaturated fat is said to be better for us than saturated fats. Testing has shown that unsaturated fats help to raise a person’s HDL cholesterol levels. HDL cholesterol is the “good” kind of cholesterol. (2) This kind of cholesterol, when at a healthy level, helps to remove extra cholesterol and clears plaque build-up in arteries. This excess is sent to the liver for removal from the body. (3)

 

Why We Care About This Information

MycoPals and many others strongly feel that mushrooms are altogether an underrepresented part of the common dinner plate. They offer us a vast array of nutritious content that can be of excellent value to our diets, whether we live in more developed countries or not. No matter our dietary concerns, be they vegan or meat eater, we can all benefit from the inclusion of mushrooms in our diet as we will soon learn.

 

I, personally, also feel that there are many individuals in the community focused on the medicinal benefits of these delicious morsels, but there aren’t as many people paying attention to the extremely beneficial nutrient content to these fungi. It is easily overlooked and undervalued and I hope to bring this to the attention of many as we all work together to push the fungi field forward. Furthermore, what is discussed here can be of use to us in more than one way as it can be applied to many different aspects of nutrition and health.

 

Discuss… Share… Empower!

 

Search Function Utilization

Due to the lengthy nature of this post, I have included some keywords for you to type into the “CTRL+F” search function in your browser. It will bring you to specific vitamins, minerals, or amino acids should you so desire to find further information on specific ones. All of these vital components can be easily found within common mushrooms as you will find below. All charts containing data referenced in this document can be found at the bottom of the page.

 

Vitamins Discussed

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

 

Minerals Discussed

Calcium (Ca)

Phosphorus (P)

Potassium (K)

Iron (Fe)

Sodium (Na)

 

Amino Acids Discussed

Leucine

Isoleucine

Valine

Tryptophan

Lysine

Threonine

Phenylalanine

Methionine

Histidine

Arginine

Vitamins

  • What are they?
    A vitamin is described as “A chemical compound that is needed in small amounts for the human body to work correctly. These include Vitamin A, many different B vitamins [1, 2, 3, 6, 12], Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K.” (24) Vitamins are made by living things and are therefore organic. They come in a much more complex chemical form than minerals do. (25) We are going to discuss a few of these that are found in some of the most common mushrooms.
  • What do they do?
    Vitamins help our bodies function in many different ways. They play important roles in everything from healing our wounds, maintaining the immune system, mending our broken bones, and hundreds of other roles.
  • Where are they found?
    In food and supplements.
  • Did you know?
    The term “vitamine” was coined by a man named Casimir Funk back in 1912. (24) As humans, we require all of the available vitamins to maintain our health. (25)

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

  • What is it?
    A vitamin belonging to the B complex group. Just like all of the vitamins in the B group, it is water-soluble. (4)
  • What does it do?
    Thiamine is required for glucose metabolism which is an important part of energy production in the body, as well as for the use of carbohydrates which is an important energy source. It plays a big role in the nervous system, muscles, and even in heart function. (4)
  • Where is it found?
    The highest amounts of Thiamine can be found in… (5)
    • Fortified breakfast cereals
    • White, long grain rice that has been enriched & parboiled
    • Egg noodles enriched & cooked
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    Enokitake per 100 dried grams is shown to have 6.1mg of Thiamine. (1)
    .
  • How much recommended daily?
    Recommended daily amounts set forth by the Food & Nutrition Board (FNB) vary by age & gender. (5)
    • 14 – 18, Male – 1.2mg
    • 14 – 18, Female – 1.0mg
      • Pregnant / Lactating – 1.4mg
    • 19 – 50, Male – 1.2mg
    • 19 – 50, Female – 1.1mg
      • Pregnant / Lactating – 1.4mg
  • Did you know?
    There are people that are at a higher risk of Thiamine deficiency. These individuals are older adults, people with alcohol dependence, people with HIV/AIDS, diabetics, and people who have had weight loss surgery. (5)

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

  • What is it?
    It is a vitamin that is found in foods as well as in dietary supplements. (6)
  • What does it do?
    Riboflavin helps us break down fats, proteins, & carbohydrates in our bodies. It is an important component in the production of adenosine triphosphate or ATP. (7) ATP is an organic chemical. It drives processes like muscle contraction and nerve transmission. It is extremely important in the transfer of energy within our bodies. (8)
  • Where is it found?
    The highest amounts of Riboflavin can be found in… (9)
    • Beef liver
    • Fortified breakfast cereals
    • Fortified instant oats
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    The Button Mushroom (3.7 to 5mg) [Agaricus bisporus], Enokitake (5.2mg) [Flammulina velutipes], & Shiitake (4.9mg) [Lentinula edodes] came in ranking with fairly similar content per 100 dried grams. (1)
  • How much recommended daily?
    Recommended daily amounts set forth by the Food & Nutrition Board (FNB) vary by age & gender. (9)
    • 14 – 18, Male – 1.3mg
    • 14 – 18, Female – 1.0mg
      • Pregnant – 1.4mg
      • Lactating – 1.6mg
    • 19 – 50, Male – 1.3mg
    • 19 – 50, Female – 1.1mg
      • Pregnant – 1.4mg
      • Lactating – 1.6mg
  • Did you know?
    Some countries set forth a requirement that mandates the addition of Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) to grains? (9) This is because the milling of these cereal grains decreases vitamin B2 content by up to 60%. (6)

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

  • What is it?
    It is an organic compound known as nicotinic acid. Vitamin B3 is essential to humans. (10)
  • What does it do?
    Niacin is used in a few ways within our bodies. Some of those include assisting with the functions of our liver, the glands which play a role in hormone production, our digestive system, our skin, and even our nervous system. Niacin also helps with metabolizing carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into energy. (11)
  • Where is it found?
    The highest amounts of Niacin can be found in… (12)
    • Beef liver
    • Chicken breast (meat only)
    • Ready to serve marinara sauce for spaghetti
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    Oyster Mushrooms [Pleurotus ostreatus] ranked high at 108.7mg per 100 dried grams under analysis. Enokitake [Flammulina velutipes] came in with a close second of 106.5mg of Niacin per 100 dried grams. (1)
  • How much recommended daily?
    Recommended daily amounts set forth by the Food & Nutrition Board (FNB) vary by age & gender. (12)
    • 14 – 18, Male – 16mg
    • 14 – 18, Female – 14mg
      • Pregnant – 18mg
      • Lactating – 17mg
    • 19+, Male – 16mg
    • 19+, Female – 14mg
      • Pregnant – 18mg
      • Lactating – 17mg
  • Did you know?
    That the common side effect of a high niacin dose, a niacin flush, is uncomfortable and sometimes even downright painful but harmless? Tell tale signs of a niacin flush after a high dose of niacin include red skin, tingling or burning, and even feeling hot to the touch. (14)

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

  • What is it?
    Vitamin C or Ascorbic acid is a vitamin that can be found in some foods & dietary supplements. (15)
  • What does it do?

    Vitamin C is vital to our bodies ability to repair and maintain our tissues. It also helps with the production of certain neurotransmitters which help send chemical messages between our nerves. (15)
  • Where is it found?
    The highest amounts of Vitamin C can be found in… (16)
    • Raw sweet red pepper
    • Orange juice
    • Oranges
  • Common Mushroom with the Most?
    Enokitake [Flammulina velutipes], once again, takes the cake with a high of 46.3mg per 100 dried grams shown in analysis. (1)
  • How much recommended daily?
    Recommended daily amounts set forth by the Food & Nutrition Board (FNB) vary by age & gender. (16)
    • 14 – 18, Male – 75mg
    • 14 – 18, Female – 65mg
      • Pregnant – 80mg
      • Lactating – 115mg
    • 19+, Male – 90mg
    • 19+, Female – 75mg
      • Pregnant – 85mg
      • Lactating – 120mg
    • Note – Smokers require 35mg more of Vitamin C per day than nonsmokers.
  • Did you know?
    Many men among the seas in the early days of oceanic navigation fell ill & died due to scurvy. Their affliction could have been prevented by a simple daily dose of lemon juice, which eventually became a staple in oceanic voyages during early times. For more than 200 years ocean travelers were pestered by scurvy. Even with overwhelming evidence that oranges & lemons helped the suffering sailors, this information was not widely accepted for an extremely long time. The ocean conquered many during that span of ignorance.

Minerals

  • What are they?
    Minerals are substances that are formed naturally by the earth. They are not formed by living things. Because they are inorganic, they have a much simpler chemical form than vitamins which are organic. (25)
  • What do they do?
    They are similar to vitamins in the fact that they play a large role in keeping our bodies healthy and functioning. They help us grow and develop, but we do not require all of the available minerals to be healthy like we do vitamins. (25)
  • Where are they found?
    Minerals can be found within the earth and we are able to source them for our needs from various foods and supplements.
  • Did you know?
    That minerals are tougher than vitamins? They can withstand heat and the test of time. Vitamins cannot in most cases. This is because they are organic compounds and minerals are inorganic. (25)

Calcium (Ca)

  • What is it?
    Calcium is a chemical element. It is the most abundant mineral found in the body. 99% the calcium ion our bodies can be found in our bones and teeth. (18)
  • What does it do?
    Calcium plays a huge role within our bodily system. It plays important parts in building our bones, allowing our blood to clot, helping our muscles contract, and even in allowing our hearts to beat. (19)
  • Where is it found?
    The highest amounts of Calcium can be found in… (20)
    • Plain low fat yogurt
    • Mozzarella
    • Sardines canned in oil with bones intact
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    The Straw Mushroom [Volvariella volvacea] is shown to contain a huge range of calcium content under analysis. From a low point of 35mg per 100g dried to a high of an astounding 347mg per 100g dried. Shiitake [Lentinula edodes] comes in at a steady and more reliable 98mg calcium per 100g dried. (1)
  • How much recommended daily?
    Recommended daily amounts set forth by the Food & Nutrition Board (FNB) vary by age & gender. (20)
    • 14 – 18, Male – 1,300mg
    • 14 – 18, Female – 1,300mg
      • Pregnant – 1,300mg
      • Lactating – 1,300mg
    • 19 – 50, Male – 1,000mg
    • 19 – 50, Female – 1,000mg
      • Pregnant – 1,000mg
      • Lactating – 1,000mg

Phosphorus (P)

  • What is it?
    This mineral can be found in every single cell in your body. Most of it is located in the bones and teeth, but it can also be found in your genes. (21)
  • What does it do?
    Phosphorus is a mineral that is required for our bodies to make energy. It also helps us carry out many important chemical processes within the body. (21)
  • Where is it found?
    The highest amounts of Phosphorus can be found in… (22)
    • Plain low fat yogurt
    • 2% milk
    • Atlantic salmon
  • Common Mushroom with the Most?
    The Oyster Mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus] came in at a steady 1,348mg per 100g dried fruiting body. The Button Mushroom [Agaricus bisporus] topped off at a high point of 1,425mg Phosphorus with a low point under analysis being 790mg per 100g dried weight. (1)
  • How much recommended daily?
    Recommended daily amounts set forth by the Food & Nutrition Board (FNB) vary by age & gender. (22)
    • 14 – 18, Male – 1,250mg
    • 14 – 18, Female – 1,250mg
      • Pregnant – 1,250mg
      • Lactating – 1,250mg
    • 19+, Male – 700mg
    • 19+, Female – 700mg
      • Pregnant – 700mg
      • Lactating – 700mg
  • Did you know?
    Phosphorus makes up an entire 1% of a person’s total weight? It comes in ranking as the second most abundant mineral in the body. Most of it is found in our bones and teeth. (23)

Potassium (K)

  • What is it?
    Potassium is a mineral that can be found within many foods. (26)
  • What does it do?
    Potassium ions can be found in every living cell. It is of extreme importance to the transfer of various ions between cell membranes. This is a requirement for normal nerve signal transmission. Having low potassium levels can create heart rhythm issues and much more. (27)
  • Where is it found?
    The highest amounts of Potassium can be found in… (28)
    • Dried apricots
    • Cooked lentils
    • Dried prunes
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    The Straw Mushroom [Volvariella volvacea] came under analysis with a high potassium content of 6,144mg per 100g dried and a low of 2,005mg. Followed in second by The Button Mushroom [Agaricus bisporus] with a high of 4,762mg per 100g dried and a low of 2849mg potassium. The common Oyster Mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus] deserves a solid mention for a steady 3793mg per 100g dried. (1)
  • How much recommended daily?
    Recommended daily amounts set forth by the Food & Nutrition Board (FNB) vary by age & gender. (28)
    • 14 – 18, Male – 3,000mg
    • 14 – 18, Female – 2,300mg
      • Pregnant – 2,600mg
      • Lactating – 2,500mg
    • 19 – 50, Male – 3,400mg
    • 19 – 50, Female – 2,600mg
      • Pregnant – 2,900mg
      • Lactating – 2,800mg
  • Did you know?
    Potassium makes up about 1.5% of the Earth’s crust! (29)

Iron (Fe)

  • What is it?
    Iron is a mineral that the body requires for healthy growth and development. (30)
  • What does it do?
    The body uses Iron to form a protein in red blood cells called hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is responsible for carrying the oxygen we breathe from our lungs to the rest of our body. Iron also helps us produce a protein called Myoglobin. This protein provides much needed oxygen to our muscles. Iron is also partially responsible for forming some of the hormones in our bodies. (30)
  • Where is it found?
    The highest amounts of Iron can be found in… (31)
    • Fortified breakfast cereals
    • Cooked eastern oysters (not the mushroom)
    • Canned white beans
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    The Button Mushroom [Agaricus bisporus] tested with a low per 100g dried of 0.2mg but a high of 19mg. The Oyster Mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus] came in a steady second with 15.2mg.
  • How much recommended daily?
    Recommended daily amounts set forth by the Food & Nutrition Board (FNB) vary by age & gender. (31)
    • 14 – 18, Male – 11mg
    • 14 – 18, Female – 15mg
      • Pregnant – 27mg
      • Lactating – 10mg
    • 19 – 50, Male – 8mg
    • 19 – 50, Female – 18mg
      • Pregnant – 26mg
      • Lactating – 9mg
  • Did you know?
    Iron is the sixth most common element in the known universe!

Sodium (NA)

  • What is it?
    Sodium is a mineral that occurs naturally in foods. It can also be added during the cooking process. (32)
  • What does it do?
    Sodium is used within the body to help control blood pressure and volume. Without it our muscles would not work properly. (33) Too much of it can raise our blood pressure to an unhealthy level because it causes excess amounts of fluid retention within our bodies.
  • Where is it found?
    The highest amounts of Sodium can be found in… (34)
    • Table salt
    • Clams
    • Cured ham
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    Enokitake [Flammulina velutipes] registered a steady 837mg per 100g dried followed by The Straw Mushroom [Volvariella volvacea] with a high range of 347mg and a low of 151mg. (1)
  • How much recommended daily?
    2,400mg Daily Value. (36)
  • Did you know?
    Sodium comprises around 2.6% of the Earth’s crust. (35)

Amino Acids

  • What are they?
    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. With over five hundred known to us, twenty of them are considered to be “standard”. Nine of these twenty are considered “essential” for human beings. These nine cannot be built from within the human body and must be sourced through external means. (37) All nine of these essential amino acids can be readily found in many common edible mushroom varieties.
  • What do they do?
    They take part in making almost all of the proteins that we may encounter within the body. These proteins are essential to all of our cells. To form these proteins, the amino acids join forces through a specialized bond called a “peptide bond” and they form the long chain molecules that we call proteins. (38) Nine out of these twenty are considered the “essential” amino acids for human beings.
  • Where are they found?
    Amino acids are readily available in many foods and dietary supplements. A majority of the most common edible mushrooms contain all nine of the essential amino acids that we require to maintain our health. (1) We will discuss these levels in the text below.
  • The nine essential amino acids
    Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, and Valine.
  • Did you know?
    There are over 500 known Amino acids.

Leucine

  • What is it?
    Leucine is one of three branched chain amino acids. These three amino acids are commonly known as (BCAA)s. (39)
  • What does it do?
    Leucine plays an important role in activating the mTOR protein. The mTOR protein is responsible for stimulating muscle protein synthesis, which is a process that builds muscle mass. (40)
  • Where is it found?
    Leucine can be found in the highest amounts in… (41)
    • Chicken legs
    • Beef skirt steaks
    • Pork chops
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    The Oyster Mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus] came in with a high range value of 610mg of Leucine per gram of crude protein and a value of 390mg on the low end of the range. The Button Mushroom [Agaricus bisporus] came in second on the chart with a low value of 329mg and a high value of 580mg of leucine.
  • Interesting point
    Altogether, the three branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) make up one third of muscle protein. (42) Of the three BCAAs, Leucine is said to be the most popular as it plays the main role in muscle growth. (40)

Isoleucine

  • What is it?
    Isoleucine is the second branched chain amino acid. (42)
  • What Does it Do?
    Isoleucine has an important role in muscle growth, but is said to be weaker in its effect than leucine. Isoleucine has the ability to increase glucose uptake and utilization of that glucose during moments of exercise. (42)
  • Where is it found?
    Isoleucine can be found in the highest amounts in… (43)
    • Beef skirt steak
    • Lean chicken breast
    • Lean pork chops
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    The Button Mushroom [Agaricus bisporus] came in the lead under analysis with a high point of 366mg isoleucine and a low point of 200mg. All of the four mushroom represented in the chart kept a fairly tight range of isoleucine showing an average of low to mid 200mg’s for each. [Shiitake, Oyster, Straw Mushroom] (1)
  • Interesting point
    Isoleucine was first discovered in hemoglobin (a protein in red blood cells) during the year 1904 by Felix Erlich, a German chemist. (44)

Valine

  • What is it?
    Valine is the third branched chain amino acid, or BCAA. (42)
  • What does it do?
    Valine plays a role in body composition just like the other two BCAAs, isoleucine and leucine, but its effects are said to be the least important out of the three. It is believed that the effects of Valine are easily replaced by the other two BCAAs. (41) Valine is also said to be able to be used to help treat metabolic and liver disease. (45)
  • Where is it found?
    Valine can be found in the highest amounts in… (46)
    • Beef skirt steak
    • Lean chicken breast
    • Lean pork chops
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    The Straw Mushroom [Volvariella volvacea] had the highest end value on its charted results with 414mg and a low of 298mg Valine. Oyster Mushrooms [Pleurotus ostreatus] came next in line with a tight range of 309mg low and 326mg high under analysis. (1)
  • Interesting point
    Valine is said to be used to treat diseases of the liver and gallbladder. (47)

Tryptophan

  • What is it?
    Tryptophan is one of the nine essential amino acids.
  • What does it do?
    It plays a role in the creation of proteins. All amino acids do this, but tryptophan has an interesting role in the production of serotonin and melatonin. (48) These are two very important things to us.
    • Serotonin is an important chemical and neurotransmitter. It is said to help us regulate our moods, social behaviors, appetite, and digestion. It even plays a part in sleep, memory, sexual desire, and sexual function. (49)
    • Melatonin is a hormone. It is what is in charge of keeping your sleep cycle aligned with the days and nights. It is produced in its highest concentration during nighttime.
  • Where is it found?
    Tryptophan is found in the highest amounts in… (50)
    • Seeds and nuts (pumpkin and squash seeds specifically)
    • Soybeans
    • Cheese
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    The Button Mushroom [Agaricus bisporus] came in first on the chart with a leading high point of 143mg per gram of crude protein and a low value of 91mg under analysis. (1)
  • Interesting point
    It is a common belief that turkey contains an extremely high amount of Tryptophan. This is supposed to be the reason behind Thanksgiving sleepiness, but it is a myth because tryptophan can be easily found in other sources with a much more concentrated presence. Tryptophan does not cause drowsiness. (50)

Lysine

  • What is it?
    Lysine is another essential amino acid. It is required for growth and tissue repair. (51)
  • What does it do?
    Lysine supports our immune system and is an important component of collagen. Collagen is the main component of connective tissues in our body. Lysine also supports our body’s ability to absorb calcium. It can also be used to help regulate blood sugar levels. (52)
  • Where is it found?
    You can find Lysine in the highest amounts in… (53)
    • Beef skirt steak
    • Lean chicken breast
    • Lean pork chops
  • Common Mushroom with the Most?
    Based upon the charted analysis Lysine can be found in the greatest amounts in The Straw Mushroom [Volvariella volvacea] with a high point value of 650mg per gram of crude protein and a low of 427mg. (1)
  • Interesting point
    Lysine actively competes with arginine, another amino acid, for absorption and entry into cells! (51) It can even be used as an ointment and applied topically to cold sores. (52)

Threonine

  • What is it?
    Threonine is another essential amino acid. It is an important component of proteins and it can be found in collagen and tooth enamel.
  • What does it do?
    It plays an important part within our body in fat metabolism and even in preventing fat build-up in the liver. It is said to be useful in assisting people with intestinal disorders and indigestion. (54)
  • Where is it found?
    It is found in the highest amounts in… (55)
    • Lean beef and lamb (roast beef)
    • Soybeans
    • Pork tenderloin
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    Although all four species represented on the chart showed a tight range of Threonine content, The Button Mushroom [Agaricus bisporus] pulled through in first with its high end value being that of 366mg per gram of crude protein.
  • Interesting point
    Threonine has been found to help alleviate anxiety and mild depression. (54)

Phenylalanine

  • What is it?
    Phenylalanine is another essential amino acid. It plays an important role in protein and enzyme production. Phenylalanine has three total forms – D, L, and DL-Phenylalanines. The DL version can only be created in a laboratory. (56)
  • What does it do?
    It plays an important role in the synthesis of other amino acids. Phenylalanine also supports the structure and proper function of proteins and enzymes throughout the body. When converted into tyrosine, it is used to build dopamine and norepinephrine. (56)
  • Where is it found?
    It can be found in the highest amounts in… (57)
    • Beef skirt steak
    • Lean chicken breast
    • Lean pork chops
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    Though the ranges were tight, The Button Mushroom [Agaricus bisporus] pulled ahead to first in the chart of four species referenced with a high range total of 340mg Phenylalanine per gram of crude protein. (1)
  • Interesting point
    Some people are born with a metabolic disorder called Phenylketonuria or PKU for short. This birth defect causes levels of Phenylalanine to build up in the body. People with this disorder need to be weary of their Phenylalanine intake because it can cause them to have intellectual disabilities, brain damage, seizures, and other problems. (58)

Methionine

  • What is it?
    Methionine is another essential amino acid.
  • What does it do?
    This amino acid plays an important role in our metabolism as humans as well as in the metabolism of many other species. (59) It is said to help reduce cholesterol levels and prevent kidney stones. (60)
  • Where is it found?
    It can be found in the highest amounts in… (60)
    • Ground turkey
    • Beef skirt steak
    • Tuna
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    Only three mushrooms on the referenced chart showed the presence of Methionine. They were The Button Mushroom, Shiitake, and Oyster. They all three had fairly close results in mg per gram of crude protein but The Button Mushroom [Agaricus bisporus] had an outlier of a high point 126mg Methionine content. (1)
  • Interesting point
    The over consumption of this amino acid is said to be related to cancer growth in a number of studies. (59)

Histidine

  • What is it?
    Histidine is another amino acid playing a role in protein synthesis. (61)
  • What does it do?
    This amino acid helps us repair tissues. It also helps us with growth and even the maintenance of the myelin sheaths that cover our nerve cells, offering them much needed protection. (61)
  • Where is it found?
    Histidine is found in the highest amounts in… (62)
    • Pork chops
    • Beef skirt steak
    • Lean chicken breast
  • Common mushroom with the most?
    In reference to the chart, Histidine was shown to have a high factor of 179mg in The Button Mushroom per gram of crude protein but it also registered a low point of 0mg per crude gram under analysis. The Oyster Mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus] came along with a more reliable low point of 87mg and high of 107mg. (1)
  • Interesting point
    Histidine was originally thought to only be needed as an infant. Further studies have shown that this amino acid has an essential place within the systems of adults, as well. (63)

Arginine

  • What is it?
    Arginine is another essential amino acid.
  • What does it do?
    Arginine boosts the production of nitric oxide within our bodies. This relaxes our blood vessels. Arginine is said to be useful in treating cardiovascular issues including angina (chest pain). (64)
  • Where is it found?
    Arginine is found in the highest amounts in… (65)
    • Seeds and nuts (specifically pumpkin and sesame seeds)
    • Turkey breast
    • Legumes
  • Interesting point
    In our bodies, this amino acid turns into nitric oxide which is said to be helpful for sexual functions due to it being a vasodilator, dilating our blood vessels.

 

 

Source List

(1) Miles, Philip G., and Shuding Zhang. Mushroom Biology: Concise Basics and Current Developments. World Scientific, 1997.

(2) Https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unsaturated_fat

(3) Https://www.healthline.com/health/high-cholesterol/foods-to-increase-hdl

(4) Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/219545.php

(5) Https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Thiamin-HealthProfessional/

(6) Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riboflavin

(7) Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/219561.php

(8) Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenosine_triphosphate

(9) Https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Riboflavin-HealthProfessional/#h2

(10) Https://med.libretexts.org/Courses/Dominican_University/DU_Bio_1550%3A_Nutrition_(LoPresto)/7%3A_Vitamins/7.3%3A_Water_Soluble_Vitamins/Vitamin_B3_(Niacin)

(11) Https://www.livescience.com/51825-niacin-benefits.html

(12) Https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Niacin-HealthProfessional/

(13) Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niacin

(14) Https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/niacin-flush

(15) Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_C

(16) Https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/

(17) Bergreen, Laurence (2003). Over the Edge of the World.

(18) Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/248958.php

(19) Https://www.nof.org/patients/treatment/calciumvitamin-d/

(20) Https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-HealthProfessional/

(21) Https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Phosphorus-Consumer/

(22) Https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Phosphorus-HealthProfessional/

(23) Https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002424.html

(24) Https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin

(25) Https://www.pharmacytimes.com/publications/otc/2015/otcguide-2015/vitamins-and-minerals-explained

(26) Https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Potassium-Consumer/

(27) Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium

(28) Https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Potassium-HealthProfessional/

(29) Http://www.softschools.com/facts/periodic_table/potassium_facts/196/

(30) Https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iron-Consumer/

(31) Https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iron-HealthProfessional/

(32) Https://sodiumbreakup.heart.org/salt-vs-sodium|

(33) Https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002415.htm

(34) Https://www.myfooddata.com/articles/what-foods-high-sodium.php

(35) Https://www.theguardian.com/science/punctuated-equilibrium/2011/may/06/1equilibrium/2011/may/06/1

(36) Https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/InteractiveNutritionFactsLabel/sodium.html

(37) Https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid

(38) Https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein

(39) Https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10418071

(40) Https://examine.com/supplements/leucine/

(41) Https://www.myfooddata.com/articles/high-leucine-foods.php

(42) Https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10418071

(43) Https://www.myfooddata.com/articles/high-isoleucine-foods.php

(44) Https://aminoacidsguide.com/Ile.html

(45) Https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Valine#section=Therapeutic-Uses

(46) Https://www.myfooddata.com/articles/high-valine-foods.php

(47) Https://www.aminoz.com.au/content/blog/valine-facts-benefits-uses-functions/

(48) Https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tryptophan

(49) Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/232248.php

(50) Https://www.myfooddata.com/articles/high-tryptophan-foods.php

(51) Https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Lysine

(52) Https://quantumhealth.com/blog/post/what-lysine-good

(53) Https://www.myfooddata.com/articles/high-lysine-foods.php

(54) Https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/threonine

(55) Https://www.myfooddata.com/articles/high-threonine-foods.php

(56) Https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/6140

(57) Https://www.myfooddata.com/articles/high-phenylalanine-foods.php

(58) Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenylketonuria

(59) Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methionine

(60) Https://www.myfooddata.com/articles/high-methionine-foods.php

(61) Https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/6274

(62) Https://www.myfooddata.com/articles/high-histidine-foods.php

(63) Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histidine

(64) Https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/6322

(65) Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323259.php#high-arginine-foods

 

Utilized as reference in Vitamins & Minerals Portion

 

Utilized as reference in Amino Acids portion.

This post is from our old webpage and was posted on December 15th, 2019.


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